Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common condition that affects many women during the menstrual cycle. Premenstrual syndrome has a wide variety of signs and symptoms, including mood swings, tender breasts, food cravings, fatigue, irritability and depression. It's estimated that as many as 3 of every 4 menstruating women have experienced some form of premenstrual syndrome.


  • Physical Symptoms:
  • Bloating or water retention
  • Breast tenderness or swelling
  • Headaches or migraines
  • Fatigue or lack of energy
  • Acne or other skin problems
  • Joint or muscle pain
  • Cramps or abdominal pain
  • Emotional Symptoms:
  • Mood swings
  • Irritability or anger
  • Anxiety or nervousness
  • Depression or feelings of sadness
  • Difficulty concentrating or focusing
  • Insomnia or trouble sleeping
  • Changes in appetite or food cravings
  • Behavioural Symptoms:
  • Social withdrawal or isolation
  • Decreased sex drive
  • Poor work or school performance
  • Changes in alcohol or drug use
  • Changes in exercise or physical activity level
  • Suicidal thoughts or behaviour (in rare cases)


Hormonal changes: PMS is thought to be related to fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone levels during the menstrual cycle. These hormonal changes can affect neurotransmitters in the brain, leading to emotional symptoms of PMS.

Genetics: There may be a genetic component to PMS, as some women are more likely to experience PMS symptoms than others.

Environmental factors: Stress, lack of sleep, poor diet, and other environmental factors can contribute to PMS symptoms.

Other underlying health conditions: Certain health conditions, such as depression, anxiety, thyroid disorders, or endometriosis, may increase the risk of PMS or exacerbate symptoms.

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Frequently Asked Questions:

Can PMS be prevented?

While there is no guaranteed way to prevent PMS, making healthy lifestyle choices and managing stress may help reduce the severity of symptoms.

What are the potential side effects of PMS treatments?

Side effects of PMS treatments can vary depending on the type of treatment. It's important to discuss potential side effects with a healthcare provider before starting any treatment.

When should I see a healthcare provider about PMS symptoms?

It's a good idea to see a healthcare provider if PMS symptoms are interfering with daily life or if symptoms are significantly impacting mood or quality of life. A healthcare provider can help identify potential causes of PMS symptoms and develop a personalized treatment plan.